Impact of Diversification

These portfolios illustrate the performance of different global stock/bond mixes and highlight the benefits of diversification. Mixes with larger allocations to stocks are considered riskier but have higher expected returns over time.

1. STDEV (standard deviation) is a measure of the variation or dispersion of a set of data points. Standard deviations are often used to quantify the historical return volatility of a security or portfolio.
Diversification does not eliminate the risk of market loss. For illustrative purposes only. Past performance is no guarantee of future results. The performance reflects the growth of a hypothetical $10,000. Assumes all models have been rebalanced monthly. See appendix for allocation information. All performance results are based on performance of indexes with model/back-tested asset allocations; the performance was achieved with the benefit of hindsight; it does not represent actual investment strategies. The index models are unmanaged and the model's performance does not reflect advisory fees or other expenses associated with the management of an actual portfolio. In particular, Model performance may not reflect the impact that economic and market factors may have had on the advisor's decision making if the advisor were actually managing client money. The models are not recommendations for an actual allocation. Indices are not available for direct investment. Backtested performance results assume the reinvestment of dividends and capital gains. Sources: Dimensional Fund Advisors LP for Dimensional Indices. Copyright 2022 S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC, a division of S&P Global. All rights reserved.

Is It Time to Sell Stocks?

First Quarter 2022

Weston Wellington
Vice President, Dimensional Fund Advisors

After touching record highs in early January, US stocks1 have slumped, and investors have been confronted with worrisome headlines2 in the financial press:

"Inflation Hits Fastest Clip Since '82"
—Gwynn Guilford, Wall Street Journal, January 13, 2022

"Economists Cut Back Growth Forecasts as Threats Pile Up"
—Harriett Torry and Anthony DeBarros, Wall Street Journal, January 18, 2022

"Giant Stock Swings Send Some Into Bear Territory"
—Gunjan Banerji and Peter Santilli, Wall Street Journal, January 18, 2022

"Markets Drop as Turbulent Trading Persists"
—Gunjan Banerji and Will Horner, Wall Street Journal, January 26, 2022

"Fed Set to Start Increasing Rates by Mid-March"
—Nick Timiraos, Wall Street Journal, January 27, 2022

Some stocks that attracted intense interest last year have fallen sharply from their previous highs, as Exhibit 1 shows.3 Is rising inflation a negative for equity investors? Do large losses in a handful of popular stocks signal a downturn ahead for the broad market?

Past performance is no guarantee of future results. Performance may increase or decrease as a result of currency fluctuations.

Source: Bloomberg.
Named securities may be held in accounts managed by Dimensional. This information should not be considered a recommendation to buy or sell a particular security.

1. As of January 31, the S&P 500 was down 5.17% for the year.
2. Headlines are sourced from publicly available news outlets and are provided for context, not to explain the market's behavior.
3. While these stocks were selected based on newsworthiness and the high level of attention they received in the media in 2021, their returns may not be reflective of all high-profile stocks over the period.

Rather well. Following a Perfect Timing strategy by investing in the best performer each year, she turned $1,000 into $1.8 million, nearly 10 times the wealth produced using a buy-andhold strategy for the S&P 500 Index (see Exhibit 2).

But also consider Hapless Harry. He was never a fan of New Year's and manages to get it wrong each and every year. His Perfectly Awful strategy winds up losing money over the same 50-year period.

Motivated by the substantial payoff associated with successful timing, researchers over the years have examined a wide range of strategies based on analysis of earnings, dividends, interest rates, economic growth, investor sentiment, stock price patterns, and so on.

One colorful example, known as the Hindenburg Omen, had a brief moment of fame in 2010. Developed by a blind mathematician and former physics teacher, this stock market indicator took its name from the German airship disaster of 1937. The Omen signaled a decline only when multiple measures of 52-week high/low prices and moving averages all turned negative. This indicator had correctly foreshadowed major downturns in 1987 and 2008. When it flashed a "sell" signal on Thursday, August 12, 2010, internet chat rooms and Wall Street trading desks were buzzing the next day, Friday the 13th, with talk of a looming crash, according to the Wall Street Journal.4 But no crash occurred, and the S&P 500 had its highest September return since 1939.5

The money management industry is highly competitive, with more stock mutual funds and ETFs available in the US than listed stocks.6
If someone could develop a profitable timing strategy, we would expect to see some funds employing it with successful results. But a recent Morningstar report suggests investors should be wary of those claiming to do so. The report examined the results of two types of funds7, each holding a mix of stocks and bonds:

  • Balanced: Minimal change in allocation to stocks
  • Tactical Asset Allocation: Periodic shifts in allocationto stocks

4. Steven Russolillo and Tomi Kilgore, " 'Hindenburg Omen' Flashes," Wall Street Journal, August 14, 2010.
5. Weston Wellington, "Hindenburg Omen Flames Out," Down to the Wire (blog), Dimensional Fund Advisors, October 8, 2010.
6. The Russell 3000 Index contains the stocks of 3,000 US companies and represented about 97% of the investable US equity market as of Dec. 31, 2021.According to the Investment Company Institute, there were 2,997 domestic equity funds and 1,032 US equity exchange-traded funds at the end of 2020.7. Morningstar described the risk profile of the Tactical Asset allocation as generally in line with that of Morningstar's 50%–70% equity category. The narrower"balanced" category used here was a subset of Morningstar's 50%–70% category that has a fairly static mix of about 60% stocks and 40% bonds.

As a group, funds that sought to enhance results by opportunistically shifting assets between stocks and fixed income underperformed funds that simply held a relatively static mix (see Exhibit 3). Morningstar further pointed out that if the performance of non-surviving tactical funds were included, the numbers would be even worse. Its conclusion: "The failure of tactical asset allocation funds suggests investors should not only stay away from funds that follow tactical strategies, but they should also avoid making shortterm shifts between asset classes in their own portfolios."8

We should not be surprised by these results. Successful timing requires two correct decisions: when to pare back the allocation to stocks and when to increase it again. Watching a portfolio shrink in value during a market downturn can be discomforting. But investors seeking to avoid the pain by temporarily shifting away from their long-term strategy may wind up trading one source of anguish for another. The initial upsurge in prices from their lows often takes many investors by surprise, and they find it extraordinarily difficult to buy stocks that were available at sharply lower prices a few weeks earlier. The opportunity cost can be substantial: Over the 25-year period ending in 2021, a hypothetical $100,000 invested in the stocks that make up the Russell 3000 Index would have grown to $1,036,694.9 But during this quarter-century, missing just the best consecutive 90-trading-day period (which ended June 22, 2020) shaved the ending wealth figure by an alarming 33%.10

Add to this the likelihood of increased transaction costs and the potential tax consequences of a short-term trading strategy, and the odds of adding value through market timing grow even slimmer.

As a thoughtful financial advisor once observed, "A portfolio is like a bar of soap. The more you handle it, the less you have."

Past performance, including hypothetical performance, is no guarantee of future results. Performance may increase or decrease as a result of currency fluctuations.

Source Morningstar. Morningstar defines Tactical Allocation portfolios as those that "seek to provide capital appreciation and income by actively shifting allocations across investments. These portfolios have material shifts across equity regions and bond sectors on a frequent basis. To qualify for the tactical allocation category, the fund must have minimum exposures of 10% in bonds and 20% in equity. Next, the fund must historically demonstrate material shifts in sector or regional allocations either through a gradual shift over three years or through a series of material shifts on a quarterly basis. Within a three-year period, typically the average quarterly changes
between equity regions and bond sectors exceeds 15% or the difference between the maximum and minimum exposure to a single equity region or bond sector exceeds 50%."

8. Amy C. Arnott, "Tactical Asset Allocation: Don't Try This at Home," Morningstar, September 20, 2021.
9. Data presented in the Growth of $100,000 example is hypothetical and assumes reinvestment of income and no transaction costs or taxes. The exhibit is presented for illustrative purposes only and is not indicative of any investment.
10. Frank Russell Company is the source and owner of the trademarks, service marks, and copyrights related to the Russell Indexes. The example of an investor missing the best consecutive 90 trading days assumes that the hypothetical portfolio fully divested its holdings at the end of the day before the 90-day period began, held cash for the period, then reinvested the entire portfolio in the Russell 3000 Index at the end of the period.
The information in this document is provided in good faith without any warranty and is intended for the recipient's background information only. It does not constitute investment advice, recommendation, or an offer of any services or products for sale and is not intended to provide a sufficient basis on which to make an investment decision. It is the responsibility of any persons wishing to make a purchase to inform themselves of and observe all applicable laws and regulations. Unauthorized copying, reproducing, duplicating, or transmitting of this document are strictly prohibited. Dimensional accepts no responsibility for loss arising from the use of the information contained herein. "Dimensional" refers to the Dimensional separate but affiliated entities generally, rather than to one particular entity. These entities are Dimensional Fund Advisors LP, Dimensional Fund Advisors Ltd., Dimensional Ireland Limited, DFA Australia Limited, Dimensional Fund Advisors Canada ULC, Dimensional Fund Advisors Pte. Ltd., Dimensional Japan Ltd., and Dimensional Hong Kong Limited. Dimensional Hong
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• Not FDIC Insured • Not Bank Guaranteed • May Lose Value. Dimensional Fund Advisors does not have any bank affiliates.
Raymond James is not affiliated with and does not endorse the opinions or services of Weston Wellington or Dimensional Fund Advisors. Opinions expressed in the article are those of the author and are not necessarily those of Raymond James. All opinions are as of this date and are subject to change without notice. The information has been obtained from sources considered to be reliable, but we do not guarantee that the foregoing material is accurate or complete. The information contained in this report does not purport to be a complete description of the securities, markets, or developments referred to in this material. This material is being provided for information purposes only and is not a complete description, nor is it a recommendation. Past performance is not a guarantee of future results. Investing involves risk and you may incur a profit or loss regardless of strategy selected. Prior to making an investment decision, please consult with your financial advisor about your individual situation